Can CBD Oil Decrease Inflammation?

Discover the latest research studies on CBD oil for decreasing inflammation and migraines.

CBD, or cannabidiol, is a non-psychoactive member of a plant family of compounds known as cannabinoids. We each have an endocannabinoid system which plays a role in regulating mood, pain, memory, and appetite (1, 2, 3). Our bodies actually produce two endocannabinoids; anandamide (known as the “bliss molecule”), and sn-2-arachidonoylglycerol. These endocannabinoids bind to cannabinoid receptors, which have been found in the brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, and immune system (2, 4). Then, an enzyme breaks down these endocannabinoids. We obtain phytocannabinoids from particular foods, like broccoli, cabbage, carrots, parsley, sunflower seeds, and cacao. When we consume higher amounts of phytocannabinoids, via CBD, for example, our body will break down the CBD thus preserving our endocannabinoids.

Some of the potential health benefits of CBD include decreasing inflammation, pain, stress, and anxiety (5-9). For the sake of time and attention to detail, this article will focus on peer-reviewed studies regarding inflammation.

CBD Oil Benefits

CBD and Inflammation

Inflammation can range from acute (like a rash or the swelling we experience after injuring a knee) to chronic (presenting in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, PCOS, and more)(10, 11). Pain often accompanies inflammation. CBD may decrease pain by binding to serotonin receptors and interacting with TRPV1 channels (12-15). An oral spray containing CBD was approved in Canada over ten years ago to treat pain in both multiple sclerosis and cancer (16).

Animal studies have demonstrated how the endocannabinoid system plays a role in inflammation occurring from allergies. For example, a study using a mouse model for allergic reactions of the skin found that when mice lacked cannabinoid receptors, their skin allergic reactions were heightened. Following in the same vein, when mice had increased levels of anandamide, their skin allergic reactions were decreased (17).

When it comes to conditions of chronic inflammation, CBD may also provide relief (18). A study published in PLoS One in 2011 found that CBD may decrease inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The researchers obtained bowel biopsies of 10 patients with UC and 8 control subjects. The biopsies were then cultured with CBD. The results indicated a protective action of CBD against further intestinal damage (19).

This isn’t the only evidence that CBD may have beneficial effects on gut conditions. A cell study in 2017 demonstrated that CBD may protect against inflammatory damage and restore the intestinal barrier (20). In Crohn’s disease, a randomized placebo-controlled trial on CBD was published in 2018 (21). The study included 50 patients with Crohn’s disease. After 8 weeks of administration of a CBD oil (containing 15% CBD and 4% THC), the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index decreased and quality of life increased compared to the control group that consumed an olive oil placebo (Naftali et al., 2018). 

Can CBD Oil Decrease Inflammation?

CBD and Headaches

Migraines may be related to inflammation. The prevalence of migraines is increased in women for reasons largely unknown (evidence published in 2018 suggests sex hormones may play a role)(22). There is evidence that women who suffer from migraines have greater FAAH enzymatic activity which results in greater breakdown of endocannabinoids (23). Other research indicates a decrease of anandamide in the cerebrospinal fluid of migraine sufferers (24). This further supports the theory that endocannabinoids may play a role in the regulation of migraines (25-27)

A review published in Current Opinion of Neurology in June of 2019 discussed the use of CBD oil for migraine relief (25). It is possible that the endocannabinoid system has several pathways of which it regulates migraine pain (25).

While human clinical trials on CBD, specifically, for migraine relief are sparse, a study was published in Pharmacotherapy in 2016 which included 121 patients who were migraine sufferers. The researchers found that daily medical marijuana use reduced the frequency of migraines from 10 to 4 migraines a month (28). While not specific to CBD, this study further suggests that the endocannabinoid system may play a roll in some types of headaches.

The Science Behind CBD Oil Benefits

Can CBD Alleviate Acne?

One physical sign of inflammation can be acne. While we have all likely dealt with acne at some point in our life, it has the potential to greatly impact our self-esteem and quality of life (29). A pre-clinical study in 2014 determined that CBD may have a therapeutic effect on acne vulgaris partly due to its anti-inflammatory properties (30).

Are there any Side-effects?

CBD has been shown to be relatively safe for consumption with some reported side-effects being fatigue, diarrhea, and loss of appetite (31). It may put extra stress on the liver and interfere with other medications. Enzymes cytochrome p450, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 metabolize CBD, so if other medications or supplements are also metabolized by these enzymes, there may be interactions (32). It is important to discuss with your healthcare provider before using CBD, especially if pregnant or breastfeeding. 

The research on CBD and the cannabinoid system is evolving rapidly. I am curious to see what an increase in future clinical studies will confirm for us.

In health, Dr. Dylan Cutler, Ph.D.

The post was sponsored by Icaria – Vancouver CBD Oil for Busy Female Professionals, based in North Vancouver, British Columbia.

Pin For Later:

CBD Oil and Inflammation

References

1. Pacher P, Bátkai S, Kunos G. The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev. 2006 September; 58(3): 389–462.

2. Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Elezgarai I, Rico-Barrio I, Zarandona I, Etxebarria N, Usobiaga A (January 2017). “Targeting the endocannabinoid system: future therapeutic strategies”. Drug Discovery Today.22 (1): 105–110.

3. Lu HC, Mackie K. An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;79(7):516–525. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.07.02.

4. Mackie K (May 2008). “Cannabinoid receptors: where they are and what they do”.J. Neuroendocrinol. 20 Suppl 1: 10–4.

5. Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2011 Sep 1;51(5):1054-61.

6. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research. National Academies Press; 2017 Mar 31.

7. Blessing EM, Steenkamp MM, Manzanares J, Marmar CR. Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct 1;12(4):825-36.

8. P Soares V, C Campos A. Evidences for the anti-panic actions of Cannabidiol. Current neuropharmacology. 2017 Feb 1;15(2):291-9.

9. Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth CW, Hoyer C, Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Koethe D. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2012 Mar 20;2:e94.

10. Chen L, Deng H, Cui H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Li Y, Wang X, Zhao L. Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget. 2018 Jan 23;9(6):7204.

11. Goyal H, Awad HH, Ghali JK. Role of cannabis in cardiovascular disorders. Journal of thoracic disease. 2017 Jul;9(7):2079.

12. Baron EP. Medicinal properties of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids in cannabis, and benefits in migraine, headache, and pain: an update on current evidence and cannabis science. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2018 Jul;58(7):1139-86.

13. De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, Posa L, Ochoa-Sanchez R, Enns J, Lopez-Canul M, Aboud M, Maione S, Comai S, Gobbi G. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2019 Jan;160(1):136.

14. Russo EB, Burnett A, Hall B, Parker KK. Agonistic properties of cannabidiol at 5-HT1a receptors. Neurochemical research. 2005 Aug 1;30(8):1037-43.

15. Reggio PH, Muller C, Morales P. Cannabinoid ligands targeting TRP channels. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience. 2018;11:487.

16. Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2008 Feb;4(1):245.

17. Karsak M, Gaffal E, Date R, Wang-Eckhardt L, Rehnelt J, Petrosino S, Starowicz K, Steuder R, Schlicker E, Cravatt B, Mechoulam R. Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system. science. 2007 Jun 8;316(5830):1494-7.

18. Liou GI. Diabetic retinopathy: role of inflammation and potential therapies for anti-inflammation. World journal of diabetes. 2010 Mar 15;1(1):12.

19. De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, Cipriano M, De Winter BY, Scuderi C, Sarnelli G, Cuomo R, Steardo L, Joris G, Iuvone T. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS One. 2011 Dec 6;6(12):e28159.

20. Gigli S, Seguella L, Pesce M, Bruzzese E, D’Alessandro A, Cuomo R, Steardo L, Sarnelli G, Esposito G. Cannabidiol restores intestinal barrier dysfunction and inhibits the apoptotic process induced by Clostridium difficile toxin A in Caco-2 cells. United European gastroenterology journal. 2017 Dec;5(8):1108-15.

21. Naftali T, Schlieder L, Lev B, Benjaminov FS, Lish I, Hirsch J, Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces clinical and endoscopic improvement in moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC). J Crohns & Colitis 2018 Feb 1 (Vol. 12, pp. S306-S306).

22. Galloway EA, Cottier KE, Kim J, Vallecillo T, Davis TP, Vanderah TW, Largent-Milnes TM. Role of Sex Hormones in Regulation of Sodium-Proton Exchanger NHE1: Implications for Migraine. The FASEB Journal. 2018 Apr;32 (1_supplement):533-60.

23. Fogan L. Treatment of cluster headache. A double-blind comparison of oxygen v air inhalation. Arch Neurol. 1985;42:362–363.

24. Greco R, Demartini C, Zanaboni AM, Piomelli D, Tassorelli C. Endocannabinoid system and migraine pain: an update. Frontiers in neuroscience. 2018 Mar 19;12:172.

25. Tassorelli C, Greco R, Silberstein SD. The endocannabinoid system in migraine: from bench to pharmacy and back. Current opinion in neurology. 2019 Jun 1;32(3):405-12.

26. Sarchielli P, Pini LA, Coppola F, Rossi C, Baldi A, Mancini ML, Calabresi P. Endocannabinoids in chronic migraine: CSF findings suggest a system failure. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Jun;32(6):1384.

27. Lochte BC, Beletsky A, Samuel NK, Grant I. The use of cannabis for headache disorders. Cannabis and cannabinoid research. 2017 Apr 1;2(1):61-71.

28. Rhyne DN, Anderson SL, Gedde M, Borgelt LM. Effects of medical marijuana on migraine headache frequency in an adult population. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016 May;36(5):505-10.

29. Dunn LK, O’Neill JL, Feldman SR. Acne in adolescents: Quality of life, self-esteem, mood and psychological disorders. Dermatology online journal. 2011;17(1).

30. Oláh A, Tóth BI, Borbíró I, Sugawara K, Szöllõsi AG, Czifra G, Pál B, Ambrus L, Kloepper J, Camera E, Ludovici M. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2014 Sep 2;124(9):3713-24.

31. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: a review of clinical data and relevant animal studies. Cannabis and cannabinoid research. 2017 Jun 1;2(1):139-54.

32. Zendulka O, Dovrtelová G, Nosková K, Turjap M, Sulcová A, Hanus L, Jurica J. Cannabinoids and cytochrome P450 interactions. Current drug metabolism. 2016 Mar 1;17(3):206-26.

Disclaimer: As the sole author of Phruitful Dish, I have based my posts on my own experiences and personal knowledge. However, I am not a medical doctor or a licensed nutritionist. The information in this blog is not intended as medical advice, and it is not endorsed by my employers or institutions I am affiliated with. Nutritional and supplemental choices should be made in consultation with your health care provider. This blog is intended to inspire and encourage readers to educate themselves on how nutrition and lifestyle are important and often overlooked aspects of health. Therefore, please use the information at your own risk. Occasional links may be provided leading to third party websites. The existence of these links does not infer a responsibility or an endorsement of the linked site, its operator, or its contents.

The Link Between PCOS and Magnesium

Studies show that magnesium deficiencies are more common in women with PCOS. Learn how supplementing with magnesium may help manage insulin resistance, inflammation, anxiety, and more.

What is PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder that greatly impacts the lives of up to 18% of women all over the world. PCOS affects multiple systems of the body including our metabolic, reproductive, and mental health. The long-term associations of PCOS include type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. This is why daily lifelong management is important. While we are still learning much regarding root causes and treatment options, there is evidence that particular minerals may play a role.

Why is Magnesium Important for PCOS?

Magnesium is crucial for women with PCOS for several reasons. Research shows that magnesium can:

  1. Manage Insulin Resistance
    • women with PCOS have an increased risk and prevalence of insulin resistance (PCOS Guidelines 2018)
  2. Reduce Inflammation
  3. Improve Sleep
  4. Alleviate Anxiety
  5. Lower Blood Pressure

I was the lead author of a clinical study published earlier this year in Food Science & Nutrition which assessed dietary intake in women with and without PCOS (Cutler et al., 2019). One of our findings was that magnesium intake was decreased in women with insulin-resistant PCOS. In addition, we found that the greater magnesium women with PCOS consumed, the lower their levels of testosterone and markers of inflammation were.

How Much Magnesium Do We Need?

The recommended daily amount of magnesium is 320 mg for an adult woman. This will vary depending on factors such as body size and stage of life. Some foods that are great sources of magnesium include legumes, whole grains, broccoli, squash, green leafy vegetables, seeds, nuts, and dark chocolate.

Link Between PCOS and Magnesium

To ensure I am obtaining enough magnesium, I supplement with Natural Calm magnesium citrate powder or vegan magnesium gummies depending on my mood and the time of day. 

In health, Dr. Dylan Cutler, Ph.D.

References

  1. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

  2. Oral magnesium supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesemia: a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
  3. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep.
  4. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress—A Systematic Review

  5. The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

This article is sponsored by Natural Calm Canada.

Pin For Later:

Link Between PCOS and Magnesium

How I Manage Stress with Secretly Calming Iced Tea

Stress can strike at any time, even on a warm summer’s day. Learn why managing stress is important and how this iced tea can help.

We are all aware that stress can strike at any time. Yes, even on a warm midsummer’s day. Read on to learn why adding magnesium to iced tea can help cool and chill you out.

Why is managing stress important?

When we experience a stressful event, specific hormones are released to protect our bodies. Cortisol, known as the stress hormone, is secreted to combat stress. However, when we are exposed to stress over a long period of time, excess cortisol released can cause immunosuppression. This is why chronic stress is thought to be responsible for many health conditions. For example, highly-stressed type A personalities are often at higher risk of a heart problem, such as a stroke or heart attack. Stress can also impact people with and at risk for type 2 diabetes by further increasing blood sugar levels. Chronic stress can also lead to other mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety. Fortunately, finding ways to manage stress can be very effective at decreasing our risk of health complications.

Manage Stress with Natural Calm Magnesium Iced Tea

The link between stress and magnesium

The connection between magnesium and stress is interesting because magnesium deficiencies affect our ability to respond to stressful situations, but also, stress depletes magnesium in our bodies! When we are in a state of stress, we excrete more magnesium in our urine. Magnesium is crucial for combating stress because it downregulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis reducing cortisol production. Evidence suggests that supplementing with magnesium may reduce anxiety, depression, and support stress management.

How I supplement with magnesium

We can increase our stress-fighting powers and make sipping magnesium citrate powder even more delicious by adding it to a calming tea, like lavender, lemon balm, passionflower, or chamomile. Ginseng, an adaptogenic antioxidant often found in tea, has also been shown to reduce stress and anxiety through regulating the HPA axis.

Manage Stress with Natural Calm Magnesium Iced Tea
Blueberry Lemon Ginseng Iced Tea with Raspberry-Lemon Magnesium Powder

For more on mood-boosting teas and spices check out this post.

This article is sponsored by Natural Calm Canada.

Pin For Later:

Manage Stress with Secretly Calming Iced Tea